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During her studies in pursuing a PhD in Psychology, Barnes took a temporary position as a postdoctoral researcher researching in neuropsychology and neurophysiology in the department of psychology at Dalhousie University , at the institute of neurophysiology of University of Osloas well as in Cerebral function at University College of London. In she graduated with Cum Laude in psychology at Carleton University. Today she is a regents professor at the University of Arizona in Tucson, Arizona.
Barnes also teaches cancer biology, neuroscience, psychology, and physiological sciences. Research[ edit ] Barnes is involved with the neuroscience research community on a national and local level. Barnes research spans through 4 decades aiming to better understand the aging of the brain in relation to cognitive diseases. Her research is conducted by utilizing animal models such as primates and rats to explore and understand how memory is impacted through the normal aging process of the brain through means of neurobiological mechanisms that are involved.
The use of animal models in Barnes research is translated into treatments used for abnormal functioning of the brain aimed at prolonging the cognitive lifespan of older individuals.
Barnes Maze [ edit ] To study spatial learning and memory, Carol Barnes created her own maze to test whether rodents, specifically mice, could remember the location of an escape box on a platform. This test has become a standard method of memory testing in laboratories. Under one of the holes is a black escape box, or any dark color in contrast to the color of the platform; the rest of the holes lead to false escape boxes. The study consisted of 3 variations of the experiment.
First, the mouse simply had to find the escape chamber that was placed under one of the holes. Second, the escape chamber was moved to a hole rotated degrees from the original hole; the original hole was also covered.
Third, the same method as the second variation was used except the original hole was not covered. Barnes and her team found that overall, male mice performed better in all variations of the experiment. Further, they found younger mice also performed better in all variations, while older mice demonstrated notable difficulties in variations 2 and 3.
This showed aging impairment in spatial memory. Overall, rodents of various ages learned T-mazes within the same number of trials, but the strategies used to learn and remember mazes differed with age.
Using MRI imaging techniques, Barnes and her team were able to see that in normally aged brains of rodents, the size of the hippocampus did not change while the volume of cortical grey matter did. These findings demonstrate that while during normal aging the hippocampus remains the same size, its function may decrease in comparison to functions of other areas of the brain. When observing cell activity and the number of cells of the hippocampus of rats, it was found that the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells continued to be active and of the same volume.
However, the number of granule cells of the dentate gyrus continuously decreased with age; the function of these cells also declined leading Carol and her team to conclude these gyrus cells are the weak link of the hippocampal circuit involved in memory.
Barnes has helped advance the field of normative aging research using nonhuman primate models, specifically macaque monkeys.
In addition, the older monkeys displayed a lower density of inhibitory somatostatin positive interneurons in the CA3 sub-region of the hippocampus. These interneurons are responsible for regulating the activity of excitatory neurons in the hippocampus. With less interneuron density, the baseline firing rate of CA3 excitatory neurons was elevated, which resembles the increased hippocampal activity shown in imaging studies of older human adults.
Both a decrease in interneuron density and increase baseline firing rates in the hippocampus have been associated with poor cognition. Barnes and her team found evidence that mammals require the same quantity of neurons in the hippocampus to encode memory of a single experience. This finding means that the studied rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans all use a stable amount of neurons to encode a similar virtual experience.
However, since all three subjects have different sized hippocampi, the proportion of neurons used for the encoding of experience differ. Barnes has also done research to see how executive function changes with normative aging.
Executive functions are the higher order process humans take part in such as attention, decision making, impulse control, and emotional control. Once again studying macaques , Barnes and her team focused on two aspects of executive function, attentional monitoring and updating as well as set shifting.
Attentional monitoring and updating are when the rules of a given situation change requiring a corresponding change in behavioral responses. For example, when two options are presented one is the correct initial choice. When the correct choice becomes the second option instead, attentional monitoring and updating help correct for the rule change and alter behavior. The change in behavior is mediated through a process of trial and error which helps associate desired outcomes with certain behaviors.
Barnes and her team found that older monkeys needed a greater number of trials to accurately account for a rule change. Meaning, the executive system behind attentional monitoring and updating is impaired with aging. Secondly, set shifting is the ability to unconsciously shift attention between tasks while maintaining accuracy. In her research, Barnes presented macaque monkeys with an object recognition test of previously learned objects.
She then presented interfering objects which required shifts between the object choice and evaluation of novel objects. Her results showed that older monkeys performed better on object recognition with interference than younger monkeys. Thus set shifting abilities seem to be maintained if not enhanced with aging. The most important discovery out of these studies, however, is that the two aspects of executive function, monitoring and updating and set shifting, were shown to be independent systems that are affected differently with age.
Barnes and her team studied brain activity in four different conditions for movement: cages, sitting, walking on a treadmill, and freely walking around space. The study found that younger macaques have distinct spatial networks for all four distinct conditions. However, older monkeys displayed less differentiated activity of spatial networks. Meaning, all conditions evoked activation of the same undifferentiated networks. This finding suggests dynamic network changes as a possible explanation for spatial cognition deficits.
In other words, the spatial processing networks become less precise with age and may contribute to spatial memory loss or confusion.
Listed there are her mentors and mentees. Supporting Women and the Underprivileged in Neuroscience[ edit ] Carol A Barnes has been lauded by her peers and the public for her outstanding work in promoting opportunities for women and the underprivileged in neuroscience.
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Carol A. Barnes
Kazrashura Carol Barnes is not the only person of African descent that has written about melanin. Shabazz Pizazz rated it it was amazing May 29, Nakeasha Johnson rated it it was amazing Mar barnse, You are commenting using your Twitter account. Mia rated it it was amazing Nov 12, Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. Regina Jane rated it it was amazing Jan 18, This is a technical powerhouse! Billy Hall rated it really liked it Nov 10, And if you want to find medical journals on the subject matter, use Google. Lacey Brown rated it it was amazing Nov 26, Paperbackpages.
CAROL BARNES MELANIN PDF
Most whites have calcified pineal glands apparently thwarting their production of Melatonin Why did Afrikans view the European as a child of God, but the Europeans viewed the Afrikan as a soulless savage? According to scientific research, most whites are unable produce much of this hormone because their pineal glands are often calcified and non-functioning. Individuals whites containing low levels of Melanin will behave in a barbaric manner. They have an inferiority complex about their lack of color in a world where everyone else the majority is colored. In fact, Albinos are now making Melanin tanning ointments.