Open in a separate window Antimicrobial efficacy of extracts All the six double combinations of the plant extracts were effective in inhibiting the growth of S. The combination of AN and P. The chlorhexidine produced the least inhibition zone against S. There was a significant difference in the mean diameter of inhibition zone between different categories with the least efficacy observed with 0. A statistically significant difference in the mean diameter of inhibition zone between different herbal combinations and 0. DMSO failed to inhibit the growth of these bacteria and hence, was not considered for analysis.

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Received Nov 29; Accepted May This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.

Abstract Development of multidrug resistance among pathogens has become a global problem for chemotherapy of bacterial infections. In this study, the aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii leaves was used for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were predominantly found to be spheroidal with particle size distribution in the range of 5—20 nm.

There was Evaluation of antibacterial activity by the disc-diffusion assay revealed that MK-AgNPs effectively inhibited the growth of test pathogens with varying sized zones of inhibition. The control strain of E. Analysis of growth kinetics revealed that the growth of all tested S. The sensitive strain of E. The present investigation revealed an encouraging result on in vitro efficacy of green synthesized MK-AgNPs and needed further in vivo assessment for its therapeutic efficacy against MDR bacteria.

Introduction Development of multidrug resistance has become a global issue with serious consequences in the management of infectious diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria [ 1 ]. This is mainly due to undiscriminating use of antibiotics in human healthcare, agriculture, and veterinary medicine [ 2 ]. Methicillin-resistant S. Considering these problems, researchers are focussing on the development or discovery of novel agents with broad-spectrum therapeutic potency.

The literature in the recent past has demonstrated a potential role of metal nanoparticles as antibacterial agents. However, functional properties of metal nanoparticles can be improved through the green synthesis approach.

Biological synthesis of nanoparticles is seeking an extraordinary consideration due to the fact that it is eco-friendly as compared to other routes of nanoparticle synthesis [ 7 ].

Despite the ability of physical and chemical methods to synthesize nanoparticles of particular size and shape, use of hazardous material and economically lesser feasibility make their application limited [ 8 ]. Commonly used chemical and physical methods are chemical reduction, ion sputtering, sol gel, etc. Stability of synthesized nanomaterials and reproducibility make green synthesis a preferred technique over other methods [ 11 ].

Nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized from algae [ 12 ], actinomycetes [ 13 ], bacteria [ 14 ], plants [ 15 ], sugar [ 16 ], biodegradable polymers chitosan [ 17 ], and from many more substrates.

Among aforementioned methods, plant-mediated synthesis is considered faster and requires lesser optimization [ 18 ]. Murraya koenigii L. The green leaves of this plant have been used in the Indian medicinal system. The leaves of this plant have also shown antihyperglycemic effects on rats under diabetic conditions [ 19 ].

The hydroalcoholic extract of M. Aqueous leaf extracts having high content of phenolics and flavonoids have potent free radical scavenging activity [ 21 ].

Ningappa and Srinivas isolated a 35 kDa protein called the curry leaf protein that has been found to exhibit high antioxidant activity [ 22 ]. The phytochemical characterization discovered the presence of major alkaloids as 9-formylmethylcarbazole, 9-carbethoxymethylcarbazole, and 3-methylcarbazole [ 23 ]. The stem bark extract of M. The antioxidant protein from curry leaves have a potent ameliorative effect of DNA damage on human erythrocytes caused by oxidative stress [ 25 ].

We have previously explored the antioxidant and antimutagenic potential of M. Considering the well-established medicinal value of M. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized and their antibacterial efficacy against multiple Gram-positive and Gram-negative MDR bacteria was assessed in detail. Materials and Methods 2. The leaves were washed with distilled water to remove dust and particles, followed by shade-drying at room temperature.

The leaves were then grinded to make fine powder using a blender. The extract was then centrifuged for 10 min at 10, rpm and filtered using the Whatman filter. Detection of Phytochemicals by Colour Test Chemical tests were performed to detect the presence of major groups of phytocompounds in the extract as described earlier [ 27 — 29 ]. Test for Tannins The dried extract mg was boiled in 20 ml of water and then filtered.

Few drops of FeCl3 0. Test for Flavonoids A colorimetric method for detection of flavonoids was adopted [ 27 , 29 ]. Dilute ammonia solution 5 ml was mixed with the aqueous filtrate of the extract, and concentrated H2SO4 was added. The development of yellow colour indicates the presence of flavonoids that disappeared on standing. The yellow colour again appeared, which an indicator for the presence of flavonoids.

Test for Glycosides A small amount of the plant extract was dissolved in water. Appearance of yellow colour confirmed the presence of glycosides [ 30 ]. Test for Terpenoids by the Salkowski Test The aqueous extract 5 ml was mixed in 2 ml of chloroform, and 3 ml of conc. H2SO4 was added carefully through the wall of the test tube.

Development of reddish brown colour at the interface shows the presence of terpenoids. Test for Detection of Cardiac Glycosides by the Keller—Kiliani Test The aqueous extract 5 ml was treated with glacial acetic acid 2 ml containing a drop of FeCl3 solution, followed by addition of 1 ml of conc. The development of a brown ring at the interface indicates deoxysugar which is a characteristic of cardenolides. First, 20 ml of AgNO3 solution 1 mM was added to 0.

The reaction was allowed to take place in 50 ml volumetric flasks at room temperature, and solutions were kept on a magnetic stirrer for vigorous mixing to optimize the reduction of AgNO3 by the plant extract. Finally, the combination of 0. The AgNPs formed from M. As the combination of 0. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles by reduction of silver ions was monitored by recording the UV-visible spectra of solutions after one-hour interval until no changes in absorbance were found.

X-Ray Diffraction Analysis Silver nanoparticles obtained were characterized in powdered form by an X-ray diffractometer.



This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Objective: This study is designed to extract and examine chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the hydro-distillated essential oil of Murraya koenigii leaves from the south region of Tamilnadu, India. Results: Major compounds detected in the oil were Linalool From the identified compounds, they were classified into four groups that are oxygenated monoterpenes The antibacterial activity of essential oil has pronounced by Disc Diffusion Method against various pathogenic microbes. Conclusion: The oil has a maximum zone of inhibition ability against Corynebacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter aerogenes. The antioxidant profile of the sample was determined by different test systems.


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Shakagore The contents were thoroughly mixed and allowed to solidify. Chapman and Hall Limited; Antibiotics and bioactive natural products in treatment of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Two carbazole alkaloids from Murraya koenigii. The petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate koeenigii ethanol extracts of roots of the plant were screened for phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Mahanimbinol from Murraya koenigii. Formulation and evaluation of herbal vanishing cream containing Punica granatum.


Plant extracts may be formulated to a suitable dosage form to treat the disease in an effective way. In the present study, we report the antibacterial activities of the ethanol extract of M. The extract revealed good antibacterial activity against tested organisms in a concentration dependant manner. Physical evaluation of the cream revealed ideal characteristics of an ideal cream.

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