Albert le Grand fut-il alchimiste? Thorndike et J. Stroick p. Rien de plus. Il parle des sceaux et images occultes, des incantateurs. Biblia Mariana La Bible Mariale.
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He is called "the Great", and "Doctor Universalis" Universal Doctor , in recognition of his extraordinary genius and extensive knowledge, for he was proficient in every branch of learning cultivated in his day, and surpassed all his contemporaries, except perhaps Roger Bacon , in the knowledge of nature.
Ulrich Engelbert, a contemporary, calls him the wonder and the miracle of his age: "Vir in omni scientia adeo divinus, ut nostri temporis stupor et miraculum congrue vocari possit" De summo bono, tr.
III, iv. Nothing certain is known of his primary or preparatory education, which was received either under the paternal roof or in a school of the neighbourhood. As a youth he was sent to pursue his studies at the University of Padua ; that city being chosen either because his uncle resided there, or because Padua was famous for its culture of the liberal arts, for which the young Swabian had a special predilection.
The date of this journey to Padua cannot be accurately determined. In the year he joined the Order of St. It was during this period of reaching at Cologne and Paris that he counted amongst his hearers St.
Thomas Aquinas, then a silent, thoughtful youth, whose genius he recognized and whose future greatness he foretold. The disciple accompanied his master to Paris in , and returned with him, in , to the new Studium Generale of Cologne, in which Albert was appointed Regent, whilst Thomas became second professor and Magister Studentium Master of Students.
In Albert was elected Provincial of his Order in Germany. Dominic , and preached on the Gospel of St. John and the Canonical Epistles. He resigned the office of Provincial in in order to devote himself to study and to teaching. Thomas Aquinas and Peter of Tarentasia afterwards Pope Innocent V , he drew up rules for the direction of studies, and for determining the system of graduation, in the Order. In the year he was appointed Bishop of Ratisbon. Humbert de Romanis, Master General of the Dominicans, being loath to lose the services of the great Master, endeavoured to prevent the nomination, but was unsuccessful.
Albert governed the diocese until , when, upon the acceptance of his resignation, he voluntarily resumed the duties of a professor in the Studium at Cologne. In the year he sent a memoir to Paris to aid St. Thomas in combating Siger de Brabant and the Averroists. This was his second special treatise against the Arabian commentator, the first having been written in , under the title "De Unitate Intellectus Contra Averroem".
He was called by Pope Gregory X to attend the Council of Lyons in the deliberations of which he took an active part. The announcement of the death of St. Thomas at Fossa Nuova, as he was proceeding to the Council, was a heavy blow to Albert, and he declared that "The Light of the Church " had been extinguished.
It was but natural that he should have grown to love his distinguished, saintly pupil, and it is said that ever afterwards he could not restrain his tears whenever the name of St. Thomas was mentioned. Something of his old vigour and spirit returned in when it was announced that Stephen Tempier and others wished to condemn the writings of St. Thomas, on the plea that they were too favourable to the unbelieving philosophers, and he journeyed to Paris to defend the memory of his disciple.
Some time after in which year he drew up his testament he suffered a lapse of memory ; his strong mind gradually became clouded; his body, weakened by vigils, austerities, and manifold labours, sank under the weight of years.
The Bishops of Germany, assembled at Fulda in September, , sent to the Holy See a petition for his canonization ; he was finally canonized in The logical order is given by P. Mandonnet, O. Logic : seven treatises I. Biological : "De vegetabilibus et plantis" 10 " De animalibus" ; "De motibus animalium", "De nutrimento et nutribili", "De aetate", "De morte et vita", "De spiritu et respiratione" 9.
Psychological : "De Anima" 5 ; "De sensu et sensato", "De Memoria, et reminiscentia", "De somno et vigilia", "De natura et origine animae", "De intellectu et intelligibili", "De unitate intellectus" 9. The foregoing subjects, with the exception of Logic, are treated compendiously in the "Philosophia pauperum" 5.
Moral and Political : "Ethicorum" 7 ; "Politocorum 8. Metaphysical : "Metaphysicorum" 6 ; "De causis et processu universitatis" Theological : "Commentary on the works of Denis the Aereopagite" 14 ; "Commentary on the Sentences of the Lombard" ; "Summa Theologiae" ; "Summa de creaturis" ; "De sacramento Eucharistiae" 38 ; "Super evangelium missus est" Sermons The authenticity of the following works is not established: "De apprehensione" 5 ; "Speculum astronomicum" 5 ; "De alchimia" 38 ; Scriptum super arborem Aristotelis" 38 ; "Paradisus animae" 37 ; "Liber de Adhaerendo Deo" 37 ; "De Laudibus B.
Virginis" 36 ; "Biblia Mariana" His fame is due in part to the fact that he was the forerunner, the guide and master of St. Thomas Aquinas, but he was great in his own name, his claim to distinction being recognized by his contemporaries and by posterity. It is remarkable that this friar of the Middle Ages, in the midst of his many duties as a religious, as provincial of his order, as bishop and papal legate, as preacher of a crusade, and while making many laborious journeys from Cologne to Paris and Rome, and frequent excursions into different parts of Germany, should have been able to compose a veritable encyclopedia, containing scientific treatises on almost every subject, and displaying an insight into nature and a knowledge of theology which surprised his contemporaries and still excites the admiration of learned men in our own times.
He was, in truth, a Doctor Universalis. Of him it in justly be said: Nil tetigit quod non ornavit ; and there is no exaggeration in the praises of the modern critic who wrote: "Whether we consider him as a theologian or as a philosopher, Albert was undoubtedly one of the most extraordinary men of his age; I might say, one of the most wonderful men of genius who appeared in past times" Jourdain, Recherches Critiques.
Philosophy, in the days of Albert, was a general science embracing everything that could be known by the natural powers of the mind ; physics, mathematics, and metaphysics.
In his writings we do not, it is true, find the distinction between the sciences and philosophy which recent usage makes. It will, however, be convenient to consider his skill in the experimental sciences, his influence on scholastic philosophy, his theology. Yet he says: "The aim of natural science is not simply to accept the statements [ narrata ] of others, but to investigate the causes that are at work in nature " De Miner.
II, tr. In his treatise on plants he lays down the principle: Experimentum solum certificat in talibus Experiment is the only safe guide in such investigations. De Veg. Deeply versed as he was in theology, he declares: "In studying nature we have not to inquire how God the Creator may, as He freely wills, use His creatures to work miracles and thereby show forth His power: we have rather to inquire what Nature with its immanent causes can naturally bring to pass" De Coelo et Mundo, I, tr.
And though, in questions of natural science, he would prefer Aristotle to St. Augustine In 2, Sent. But if one believe that Aristotle was a man, then doubtless he was liable to error just as we are. VIII, tr. In fact Albert devotes a lengthy chapter to what he calls "the errors of Aristotle " Sum. In a word, his appreciation of Aristotle is critical. He deserves credit not only for bringing the scientific teaching of the Stagirite to the attention of medieval scholars, but also for indicating the method and the spirit in which that teaching was to be received.
Like his contemporary, Roger Bacon , Albert was an indefatigable student of nature, and applied himself energetically to the experimental sciences with such remarkable success that he has been accused of neglecting the sacred sciences Henry of Ghent, De scriptoribus ecclesiasticis, II, x.
Indeed, many legends have been circulated which attribute to him the power of a magician or sorcerer. Sighart Albertus Magnus examined these legends, and endeavoured to sift the truth from false or exaggerated stories. The truth lies between the two extremes. On all these subjects his erudition was vast, and many of his observations are of permanent value. Humboldt pays a high tribute to his knowledge of physical geography Cosmos, II, vi.
Meyer writes Gesch. All honour, then, to the man who made such astonishing progress in the science of nature as to find no one, I will not say to surpass, but even to equal him for the space of three centuries. Non est probatum hoc quod educitur de plumbo esse aurum, eo quod sola ars non potest dare formam substantialem -- De Mineral.
II, dist. Roger Bacon and Albert proved to the world that the Church is not opposed to the study of nature, that faith and science may go hand in hand; their lives and their writings emphasize the importance of experiment and investigation. Bacon was indefatigable and bold in investigating; at times, too, his criticism was sharp.
But of Albert he said: "Studiosissimus erat, et vidit infinita, et habuit expensum, et ideo multa potuit colligere in pelago auctorum infinito" Opera, ed. Brewer, Albert respected authority and traditions, was prudent in proposing the results of his investigations, and hence "contributed far more than Bacon did to the advancement of science in the thirteenth century" Turner, Hist.
His method of treating the sciences was historical and critical. He gathered into one vast encyclopedia all that was known in his day, and then expressed his own opinions, principally in the form of commentaries on the works of Aristotle. Sometimes, however, he hesitates, and does not express his own opinion, probably because he feared that his theories, which were "advanced" for those times, would excite surprise and occasion unfavourable comment.
Albert gives an elaborate demonstration of the sphericity of the earth; and it has been pointed out that his views on this subject led eventually to the discovery of America cf. Mandonnet, in "Revue Thomiste", I, ; , He, more than any one of the great scholastics preceding St. Thomas, gave to Christian philosophy and theology the form and method which, substantially, they retain to this day.
In this respect he was the forerunner and master of St. Thomas , who excelled him, however, in many qualities required in a perfect Christian Doctor. In marking out the course which other followed, Albert shared the glory of being a pioneer with Alexander of Hales d.
Their application of Aristotelean methods and principles to the study of revealed doctrine gave to the world the scholastic system which embodies the reconciliation of reason and Orthodox faith. After the unorthodox Averroes, Albert was the chief commentator on the works of, Aristotle, whose writings he studied most assiduously, and whose principles he adopted, in order to systematize theology, by which was meant a scientific exposition and defence of Christian doctrine.
The choice of Aristotle as a master excited strong opposition. Albert, however, knew that Averroes, Abelard, Amalric, and others had drawn false doctrines from the writings of the Philosopher ; he knew, moreover, that it would have been impossible to stem the tide of enthusiasm in favour of philosophical studies; and so he resolved to purify the works of Aristotle from Rationalism, Averroism, Pantheism, and other errors, and thus compel pagan philosophy to do service in the cause of revealed truth.
In this he followed the canon laid down by St. Augustine II De Doct. See St. Thomas, Summa Theol. All inferior natural sciences should be the servants ancillae of Theology, which is the superior and the mistress ibid. Against the rationalism of Abelard and his followers Albert pointed out the distinction between truths naturally knowable and mysteries e. III, quaest. We have seen that he wrote two treatises against Averroism, which destroyed individual immortality and individual responsibility, by teaching that there is but one rational soul for all men.
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Er beschreibt detailliert chemische Verfahren wie Destillation mit fortgeschrittenen Methoden wie Wasserbad , Sublimation und verschiedene Chemikalien, z. Im Versuch, das naturphilosophische Denken des Aristoteles mit dem christlichen Glauben zu vereinbaren, arbeitete er das gesamte Wissen seiner Zeit aus Theologie, Philosophie, Medizin und Naturwissenschaften durch, ohne es jedoch in einer Systematik geschlossen darzustellen. Darum konnte sich eine motivische Vielfalt entwickeln, die auch manche Legenden mit einbezog. Jahrhundert entstandenen Secreta mulierum   zugeschrieben. Jahrhundert kursierten derartige pseudo-albertischen Texte.
Fu, realmente, un Doctor Universalis. Alberto e le scienze sperimentali[ modifica modifica wikitesto ] Non sorprende che Alberto si fosse basato sulle fonti di informazioni che esistevano ai suoi tempi, in particolare sugli scritti scientifici di Aristotele. De Vegetalibus, VI, tr. VIII, tr. II, tr.